Jun 13, 2018 Viewed: 64 Tags: mobile app   software development   软件开发  

Mobile app development Platform Front-end development tools App Inventor for Android JavaScript Appcelerator iOS SDK Object Pascal Java Tabpear

Mobile app development



Mobile app development is the act or process by which a mobile app is developed for mobile devices, such as personal digital assistants, enterprise digital assistants or mobile phones. These applications can be pre-installed on phones during manufacturing platforms, or delivered as web applications using server-side or client-side processing (e.g., JavaScript) to provide an "application-like" experience within a Web browser. Application software developers also must consider a long array of screen sizes, hardware specifications, and configurations because of intense competition in mobile software and changes within each of the platforms. Mobile app development has been steadily growing, in revenues and jobs created. A 2013 analyst report estimates there are 529,000 direct app economy jobs within the EU 28 members, 60% of which are mobile app developers.[1]


As part of the development process, mobile user interface (UI) design is also essential in the creation of mobile apps. Mobile UI considers constraints, contexts, screen, input, and mobility as outlines for design. The user is often the focus of interaction with their device, and the interface entails components of both hardware and software. User input allows for the users to manipulate a system, and device's output allows the system to indicate the effects of the users' manipulation. Mobile UI design constraints include limited attention and form factors, such as a mobile device's screen size for a user's hand(s). Mobile UI contexts signal cues from user activity, such as location and scheduling that can be shown from user interactions within a mobile app. Overall, mobile UI design's goal is mainly for an understandable, user-friendly interface. The UI of mobile apps should: consider users' limited attention, minimize keystrokes, and be task-oriented with a minimum set of functions. This functionality is supported by mobile enterprise application platforms or integrated development environments (IDEs).


Mobile UIs, or front-ends, rely on mobile back-ends to support access to enterprise systems. The mobile back-end facilitates data routing, security, authentication, authorization, working off-line, and service orchestration. This functionality is supported by a mix of middleware components including mobile app server, mobile backend as a service (MBaaS), and service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure.



Platform

The platform organizations needed to develop, deploy and manage mobile apps are made from many components and tools which allow a developer to write, test and deploy applications into the target platform environment.


Front-end development tools

Front-end development tools are focused on the user interface and user experience (UI-UX) and provide the following abilities:


UI design tools

SDKs to access device features

Cross-platform accommodations/support

Notable tools are listed below.


Platform Programming language Debuggers available Emulator available Integrated development environment available Cross-platform deployment Installer packaging options Development tool cost

Accelerator HTML5, C# Yes Yes Microsoft Visual Studio

(no lock-in) All platforms, mobile apps are browser-based Mobile Web Commercial licenses available

Android Java but portions of code can be in C, C++,

Kotlin


Debugger integrated in Eclipse, standalone debugging monitor available Yes Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, Android Studio, Project Kenai Android plugin for NetBeans Android only, because of Dalvik VM, March 2009 apk Free, IntelliJ IDEA Community Edition - Free

App Inventor for Android Visual blocks-based programming language, with Interface designer Limited debugging tools built into IDE Yes Web-based interface designer, with connection to Java web-start program for blocks programming Android devices apk Free

Appcelerator JavaScript Yes, in Titanium Studio. Emulator is available using native emulators Titanium Studio based on Eclipse Android, iPhone; BlackBerry, Tizen, mobile web The native distribution format of each platform Free, open-sourced Apache 2.0 licensed, commercial and enterprise licenses available

Basic4android Visual Basic similar syntax Yes Emulator is available using native emulators Proprietary IDE Android The native distribution format of each platform Commercial licenses available

BlackBerry Java Debugger integrated in IDE Yes Eclipse, BlackBerry JDE BlackBerry only, because of RIM API alx, cod Free

Codename One Java Yes Yes Eclipse, Netbeans Android, iPhone, BlackBerry, Windows Mobile, J2ME The native distribution format of each platform Open Source GPLv2 and subscription-based build server

Corona SDK Lua Yes Yes Xcode Android, iOS, Nook Color Native deployment for each platform Free unlimited trial; commercial licenses available for deployment

DragonRAD Visual drag & drop tiles Yes Uses third-party emulators Proprietary IDE Android, BlackBerry, Windows Mobile OTA deployment Free & commercial licenses available

GeneXus for Mobile and Smart Devices Knowledge representation and declarative programming-modeling for easy development, then code is automatically generated for each platform GeneXus utilizes pre-tested code libraries and user debugging of code not necessary after code generation. Publish in the cloud, test native in the device, no emulator needed Proprietary IDE Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), BlackBerry OS, and even HTML5 if needed The native distribution format of each platform and also cloud-browser-based Free to try, commercial and enterprise licenses available

IBM MobileFirst Studio HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, and native SDK languages w/ Native Worklight API Yes, Mobile Browser Simulator or integration with Native SDK Debugger Emulator is available using native emulators or Browser Simulator w/ Cordova Plugin Eclipse plugin, Eclipse-based stand-alone Android, iOS, BlackBerry 6,7, & 10, Windows Phone 7.5 & 8, Windows 8 (desktop, tablets), Adobe AIR, Mobile Web App, desktop browser web page The native distribution format of each platform Developer edition free via Eclipse Marketplace, commercial license for deployment

Intel XDK HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript and Node-Webkit back-end Yes Yes Stand-alone, bundled with IDE Android, iOS, Windows 8, Amazon, Facebook, Chrome, Nook, Firefox Marketplace, Tizen The native distribution format of each platform Free

iOS SDK Objective-C, Swift Debugger integrated in Xcode IDE Bundled with iPhone SDK, integrated with Xcode IDE Xcode, AppCode iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch Only via App Store, needs review and approval by Apple Inc. Apple tools are free for an Intel-based Mac. Simulator testing is free, but installing on a device needs a fee for a developer signing key. AppCode - commercial licenses available.

Since 2015, Apple allows installing the app in your own device without a developer paid membership.[2]


iOS SDK Object Pascal Debugger integrated in Xcode IDE Included in Delphi XE2 professional or higher Embarcadero Delphi XE2 iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch Only via App Store, needs review and approval by Apple Inc. Development requires Intel-based Mac besides the IDE on Windows. Design is on Windows, Compiling and deploying must be done on Mac. Simulator testing is free, but installing on a device needs a fee for a developer signing key

Java ME Java Yes Free emulator, Sun Java Wireless Toolkit, mpowerplayer Eclipse, LMA NetBeans Mobility Pack Yes although many VM implementations have device specific bugs necessitating separate builds Jad/Jar packaging; PRC files under Palm OS Free

Lazarus Object Pascal Yes, can debug in IDE via ActiveSync for Windows CE Uses the emulators of the platforms Lazarus IDE, including integrated GUI designer and debugger Compiled language available for Windows CE, Linux-based devices, Symbian port in development The native distribution format of each platform Free

LambdaNative Scheme No No but can build and test on the localhost Eclipse (software) (optional) All native binaries: Android, iOS, BlackBerry 10, Windows, OS X, Linux, OpenBSD, OpenWrt The native distribution format of each platform Free (BSD license)

LiveCode LiveCode Yes (integrated into IDE) Yes (iOS and Android emulators may be used) Yes iOS, Android, macOS, Windows, Linux, server, HTML5. Installer packaging The native distribution format of each platform free open-source edition, commercial and enterprise editions available

Macromedia Flash Lite ActionScript Yes Bundled with IDE Macromedia Flash MX2004/8, Eclipse Yes SIS-CAB deployment or OTA-IR-Bluetooth SWF files Varies, free but limited with MTASC

Marmalade C, C++ Yes Yes Visual Studio, Xcode All native: Android, BlackBerry, BREW, iOS (iPhone), Maemo, Palm-webOS, Samsung bada, Symbian, Windows Mobile 6.x and desktop, OS X The native distribution format of each platform Commercial licenses available

Meme IDE MemeScript Validation is provided in the problems view Yes, Android emulator can be integrated Eclipse RCP Android, Windows Mobile The native distribution format of each platform Free for development

Mendix HTML5, Java Yes Yes Yes, the Mendix app platform All platforms, mobile apps are browser-based Not applicable, Mendix is a platform as a service Commercial licenses available

Monaca HTML5, CSS, JavaScript Yes Preview is available on cloud IDE and local tool Cloud-based IDE, Visual Studio, third-party IDE/editors Android, iOS, windows8.1, 10 The native distribution format of each platform Free, up to 3 projects. Commercial and enterprise license available

Mono for Android C# Yes Yes Visual Studio 2005 and MonoDevelop Android The native distribution format of the platform

MonoTouch C# Yes Yes Visual Studio 2005 and MonoDevelop iOS The native distribution format of the platform

MoSync C, C++, Lua, HTML5, CSS, JavaScript Yes Yes Eclipse, Visual Studio 2005 and later, MoBuild w/ text editors Android, iOS (iPhone), Java ME, Moblin, Smartphone 2003, Symbian, Windows Mobile (Pocket PC), Blackberry (experimental) SIS, CAB, JAD, JAR, APK, OTA deployment Free, GPL 2.0, Free Indie Subscription; commercial subscription available

NetBeans C++, Java Yes Yes Java development tools Android (Mobile and Tablet), Nokia (Symbian, Seria 60 - 40- 80), etc... Free

Protogrid No coding needed. JavaScript can be used for Business Logic. Yes using browser debug tooling Yes browser-based, iOS simulator Proprietary IDE Web, iOS, Mobile Web The native distribution format of each platform, OTA deployment Trial and commercial licenses available

OpenPlug ActionScript, XML Yes Yes OpenPlug ELIPS plugin for Adobe Flash Builder Android, iOS (iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch), Symbian, Windows Mobile The native distribution format of each platform Free & commercial licenses available

OutSystems OutSystems, CSS, JavaScript Yes Test directly in browser OutSystems Service Studio Andoid, iOS, Windows Phone 7 NA Free community edition for personal use, or subscription licensing for commercial use

PhoneGap and Apache Cordova HTML, CSS, JavaScript Yes No third-party tools No, third-party tools iPhone, Android, Tizen, Windows Phone, BlackBerry, Symbian, Palm, Bada The native distribution format of each platform Apache 2

Qt SDK C++, QML Yes Yes Qt Creator Android (technology preview), iOS (technology preview), Symbian, Maemo, MeeGo, Linux, Windows, OS X The native distribution format of each platform Free and commercial licenses available

Rhomobile Ruby with HTML interface features compiled through an interpreter into native applications Yes N/A, applications can run in Win32 runner, or in device emulators for supported platforms. Xcode or Eclipse, on-demand RhoHub version includes full IDE Yes, supports Android 1.6+, iOS 3.0+ (iPhone, iPad), Windows Mobile 6.1 Professional, Windows Mobile 6.0 Standard, BlackBerry 4.6, 4.7, 5.0, 6.0 (4.2 and 4.5 supported but database access is very slow on these devices), Symbian OTA deployment, iOS through App store, .SIS, .CAB, .APK, .COD Rhodes is free and open source under the MIT License, RhoSync is under GPL or commercial, Commercial support available. Subscription for RhoHub

RubyMotion Ruby Yes Yes Any text editor. As an IDE, RubyMine. Android, iOS The native distribution format of the platform RubyMotion is a commercial product.

Sencha Touch HTML, CSS, JavaScript Yes Yes Sencha Architect 2 Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch), Kindle, BlackBerry, Bada Web delivered, or hybrid via native shells for each platform GPLv3, free for commercial, paid for OEM and embedded systems

Smartface WYSIWYG design editor with JavaScript code editor Yes Yes Smartface IDE and SDK Yes Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch), Kindle, Gear, Google Glass The native distribution format of each platform Community license and commercial licenses available

Stencyl Drag-and-drop editor based on Scratch, Objective-C Yes Yes Xcode iOS (iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch) The native distribution format of each platform Free and commercial development licenses

Telerik Platform, and AppBuilder HTML5, CSS and Javascript Yes Test right in browser or device In-browser client, desktop client, Visual Studio, Sublime Text or command-line interface (CLI) Android, iOS, Windows phone The native distribution format of each platform Free to try, commercial and enterprise licenses available

Unity C#, JavaScript, Boo, other .NET-based languages Yes Remote used to simulate device interaction before app is uploaded to the device. Unity Editor, also works with Visual Studios and MonoDevelop. Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), PC, Mac, desktop browser, Xbox 360, PS3, Wii. BlackBerry Playbook, Nokia Symbian, Roku 2 and others available through company's Union program. Native distribution format of each platform Free and commercial development licenses.

Verivo AppStudio WYSIWYG, graphical drag and drop, JavaScript, .NET-based languages Yes Test right in browser or device Proprietary design studio Android, iOS, Blackberry Native distribution format of each platform Free development licenses; per-CPU deployment licenses

ViziApps WYSIWYG, graphical drag and drop Yes Test right in browser or device Online design studio Android, iOS, Windows Phone planned The native distribution format of each platform Free to design, test, demo, update, app; fee to publish

V-Play Engine Objective C, C++, JavaScript, QML, Java Yes Yes Qt Creator All Platforms The native distribution format of each platform Free, Indie and Enterprise licenses are available

Wakanda HTML5, JavaScript Yes Yes Yes Wakanda Studio Android, iOS, Windows 10 (soon) and browser-based apps apk Open Source and Commercial licenses available

Xamarin C# Yes Yes Xamarin Studio (Mac only), Visual Studio (Windows only) Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Windows Store apps The native distribution of each platform Free community edition, pro edition included in Microsoft MSDN licensing

Xojo Xojo (similar to VB) Yes Yes Xojo IDE iOS, mobile web apps iOS apps are native iPad Free trial with no time limit; commercial licenses available

Back-end servers

Back-end tools pick up where the front-end tools leave off, and provide a set of reusable services that are centrally managed and controlled and provide the following abilities:


Integration with back-end systems

User authentication-authorization

Data services

Reusable business logic

Available tools are listed below.


Platform Programming language Integrated development environment available Cross-platform deployment Deployment options Development tool cost

Altova MobileTogether Server Browser-based interface NA Server available for Windows, Linux, macOS. Supports mobile devices running Android, iOS, Windows 8, Windows Phone 8, HTML5 browser-based client On-prem, cloud, or hybrid Commercial license based on the number of mobile devices needed

GO!AppZone by Globo plc JavaScript. Custom integrations connectors/server-side logic: C#, VB.NET Yes, GO!AppZone Studio Android, BlackBerry, iOS, Windows Phone, 8.x, RT On-prem, cloud or hybrid Development tools are free, commercial license or subscription needed for deployment

IBM MobileFirst Server HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, and native SDK languages w/ Native Worklight API Eclipse plugin, Eclipse-based stand-alone Android, iOS, BlackBerry 6,7, & 10, Windows Phone 7.5 & 8, Windows 8 (desktop, tablets), Adobe AIR, Mobile Web App, desktop browser web page On-prem Developer edition free via Eclipse Marketplace, commercial license for deployment

Metismo Java Eclipse Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), Java ME, BREW, BlackBerry, Nintendo DS, Palm/webOS, Sony PSP, Samsung bada, Symbian, Windows Mobile, Windows Phone 7, Windows Desktop, OS X On-prem Commercial licenses available

Wakanda JavaScript Use Wakanda Studio Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), Windows Phone 10 (soon), HTML5 app On-prem or cloud Community and commercial editions

Verivo Akula Java Use any front-end IDE Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), Windows Phone7 On-prem, cloud, or hybrid Free development licenses; per-CPU deployment licenses

WebORB Integration Server C#, VB.NET, Java, PHP, ActionScript, JavaScript, Objective-C,

XML


Works with Eclipse, Visual Studio, intelliJ IDEA and Amethyst IDE Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), BlackBerry Playbook, Windows Phone 7 On-prem Free development licenses; free and commercial deployment licenses

Security add-on layers

With bring your own device (BYOD) becoming the norm within more enterprises, IT departments often need stop-gap, tactical solutions that layer atop existing apps, phones, and platform component. Features include


App wrapping for security

Data encryption

Client actions

Reporting and statistics

System software

Many system-level components are needed to have a functioning platform for developing mobile apps.


Platform Programming language Debuggers available Emulator available Integrated development environment available Cross-platform deployment Installer packaging options Development tool cost

Adobe AIR ActionScript, HTML, CSS, JavaScript Yes Yes Flash Builder, Flash Professional, IntelliJ IDEA Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch), BlackBerry The native distribution format of each platform Flash Builder, Flash Professional, IntelliJ IDEA - commercial licenses available Adobe AIR SDK (command line tool) - Free

BREW C; the APIs are provided in C with a C++ style interface Debugger support for the native ARM target code. Can use Visual Studio to debug the x86 testing code No Emulator for the target ARM code, has a simulator for the x86 testing code Visual Studio 6.0, Visual Studio 2003 .NET, Visual Studio 2005 Compile for the specific BREW version available on the handset OTA Related dev fees typically needed for Brew App Certification - VeriSign annual fee for becoming a certified developer. Realview ARM compiler for BREW (the free GNU C/C++ is available, but with limited function and support). TRUE BREW testing fee for distributing the application.

Firefox OS HTML5, CSS, JavaScript Yes No, but simulator available. Firefox browser, Firebug Web browser on other platform Firefox Marketplace, Web URL Development requires Mozilla Firefox and the simulator add-on

.NET Compact Framework C#, VB.NET, Basic4ppc Yes Free emulator, source code available, also bundled with IDE Visual Studio 2008, 2005, 2003, Basic4ppc IDE Windows Mobile, Windows CE, Symbian-based devices via third party tools OTA deployment, CAB files, ActiveSync Most tools free, but commercial editions of Visual Studio needed for visual designers

OpenFL Haxe (similar to Actionscript and Java) Yes Yes IntelliJ IDEA, FlashDevelop Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch), BlackBerry Playbook, WebOS, HTML5, Flash, Windows (exe), Linux The native distribution format of each platform Free

Palm OS C, C++, Pascal Yes OS 1.0 - 4.1: free emulator provided by PalmSource (Access); OS 5.0: - 5.4 device-specific simulators provided by Palm (palmOne) Palm OS Development System (Eclipse), CodeWarrior, PocketStudio, HB++, Satellite Forms Palm OS handhelds, or Windows Mobile with StyleTap emulator PRC files, PalmSource Installer (.psi) Free (POSE or GCC for Palm OS), or commercial (CodeWarrior), or various commercial rapid-development frameworks

Python Python Yes Add-on to Nokia Emulator Several, including plugins for Eclipse Interpreted language available natively only on Nokia Series60 (and desktops) though ports exist to other mobile platforms, including Palm OS Sis deployment with py2sis or can use Python Runtime Free

Symbian C++ Yes Free emulator Many choices Compile per target SIS deployment Commercial and free tools available

Tizen Web-based: HTML5, CSS, JavaScript Native: C, C++ Yes Free emulator Tizen SDK Web-based app to be available on web browser Tizen through App store, Web URL Development needs Windows, OS X, or Ubuntu Desktop

Ubuntu Touch Web-based: HTML5, CSS, JavaScript Native: QML, C, C++ Yes Yes Ubuntu SDK HTML5 app to be available web browser. Ubuntu Touch through App store, Web URL Development requires Ubuntu Desktop 12.04 or higher, Free

webOS JavaScript, CSS, HTML, C and C++ through the PDK Yes Free emulator Eclipse webOS, Palm only OTA deployment, webOS through App store, Web URL, Precentral, .ipk Free

Windows Mobile C, C++ Yes Free emulator (source code available), also bundled with IDE Visual Studio 2010, 2008, 2005, eMbedded VC++ (free), Satellite Forms Windows Mobile, Windows CE OTA deployment, CAB files, ActiveSync Free command-line tools or eMbedded VC++, or Visual Studio (Standard edition or better)

Windows Phone C#, Visual Basic, C, C++ Yes Free emulator, also bundled with IDE Visual Studio 2012, Visual Studio 2010 Windows Phone OTA deployment, XAP files

Criteria for selecting a development platform usually contains the target mobile platforms, existing infrastructure and development skills. When targeting more than one platform with cross-platform development it is also important to consider the impact of the tool on the user experience. Performance is another important criteria, as research on mobile apps indicates a strong correlation between application performance and user satisfaction. Along with performance and other criteria, the availability of the technology and the project's requirement may drive the development between native and cross-platform environments. To aid the choice between native and cross-platform environments, some guidelines and benchmarks have been published. Typically, cross-platform environments are reusable across multiple platforms, leveraging a native container while using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript for the user interface. In contrast, native environments are targeted at one platform for each of those environments. For example, Android development occurs in the Eclipse IDE using Android Developer Tools (ADT) plugins, Apple iOS development occurs using Xcode IDE with Objective-C and/or Swift, Windows and BlackBerry each have their own development environments.


Mobile app testing

Mobile applications are first tested within the development environment using emulators and later subjected to field testing. Emulators provide an inexpensive way to test applications on mobile phones to which developers may not have physical access. The following are examples of tools used for testing application across the most popular mobile operating systems.


Google Android Emulator - an Android emulator that is patched to run on a Windows PC as a standalone app, without having to download and install the complete and complex Android SDK. It can be installed and Android compatible apps can be tested on it.

The official Android SDK Emulator - a mobile device emulator which mimics all of the hardware and software features of a typical mobile device (without the calls).

TestiPhone - a web browser-based simulator for quickly testing iPhone web applications. This tool has been tested and works using Internet Explorer 7, Firefox 2 and Safari 3.

iPhoney - gives a pixel-accurate web browsing environment and it is powered by Safari. It can be used while developing web sites for the iPhone. It is not an iPhone simulator but instead is designed for web developers who want to create 320 by 480 (or 480 by 320) websites for use with iPhone. iPhoney will only run on OS X 10.4.7 or later.

BlackBerry Simulator - There are a variety of official BlackBerry simulators available to emulate the functionality of actual BlackBerry products and test how the device software, screen, keyboard and trackwheel will work with application.

Windows UI Automation - To test applications that use the Microsoft UI Automation technology, it requires Windows Automation API 3.0. It is pre-installed on Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2 and later versions of Windows. On other operating systems, you can install using Windows Update or download it from the Microsoft Web site.

MobiOne Developer - a mobile Web integrated development environment (IDE) for Windows that helps developers to code, test, debug, package and deploy mobile Web applications to devices such as iPhone, BlackBerry, Android, and the Palm Pre. MobiOne Developer was officially declared End of Life by the end of 2014.[citation needed]

Tools include


eggPlant: A GUI-based automated test tool for mobile app across all operating systems and devices.

Ranorex: Test automation tools for mobile, web and desktop apps.

Testdroid: Real mobile devices and test automation tools for testing mobile and web apps.

Patents

Many patent applications are pending for new mobile phone apps. Most of these are in the technological fields of business methods, database management, data transfer, and operator interface.[3]


On May 31, 2011, Lodsys asserted two of its four patents: U.S. Patent No. 7,620,565 ("the '565 patent") on a "customer-based design module" and U.S. Patent No. 7,222,078 ("the '078 patent") on "Methods and Systems for Gathering Information from Units of a Commodity Across a Network." against the following application developers

Tabpear is a Software Technology Co., Ltd which has many domestic excellent  e-commerce platform R & D teams and mobile R & D teams. We divide the software engineer teams into several levels according to the project development experience. Level one is more than 3 years of development experience. Level two is more than five years of development experience. Level three is more than 10 years of development experience and Level four is expert team which has more than five participating in research projects, Invention patents and software copyrights of 6 or more, published in the core periodicals more than 10 papers. There is also a team ,working at cloud computing and service computing including four doctors, seven masters and 23 persons who have master's degree.


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